New migrants who are moving to Adelaide should be aware that the Australian income year starts on July 1 each year and ends on June 30 the following year. As the financial year end is on June 30, June is often an apt time to consider tax related matters.
The fundamental basis of taxation in Australia depends on whether a person is an Australian resident for tax purposes. Your residency status for tax purposes will determine your liabillity to pay income tax. At the outset, it is worth highlighting that Australian residency for tax purposes has nothing to do with the Australian visa granted to you by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection to enter Australia - whether as a permanent resident visa holder or a temporary resident visa holder. Neither does it have much relevance with your nationaility. So a new migrant could be a foreign national arriving on a temporary resident visa, and still be an Australian resident for tax purposes.
The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) explains the "resides" test and the meaning of "resides" here. Some of the factors that are considered include behaviour while in Australia, intention or purpose of presense in Australia, and family, assets, social and living arrangements in Australia.
The ATO also provides several examples of the different scenarios to determine whether you are an Australian resident for tax purposes here. It also provides a "Are you a resident?" tool to help you determine whether you are an Australian resident for tax purposes.
Any advice is general advice and should not be relied upon as appropriate to the individual personally. Please obtain personal taxation advice to determine whether it is appropriate to your situation.